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    • History of the Greek Revolution
      George Finlay
      After participating to the Greek Independence War, George Finlay studied the history of medieval and modern Greece, and wrote this History of the Greek Revolution, in which the mass of first-hand testimonies and documentary data in his possession was reworked in a masterpiece of historiography attentive to the facts and their context. The essay begins with a description of the Greek society at the dawn of the Independence War and extends up to the Constitutional Revolution of 1843.

      Pages 716
      Format: epub + mobi
      ISBN 9788897527480 Anno 2020
    • Ebook Price € 5


    • George Finlay
      George Finlay (1799-1875), English born, was educated at Glasgow and Göttingen, where he studied Roman law. Becoming an enthusiast in the cause of Greece, he joined Byron in the War of Independence, and thereafter bought a property near Athens, where he settled and busied himself with schemes for the improvement of the country, which had little success, and writing a History of Greece, in several volumes, extending from the Roman Conquest to Finlay’s present (146 B.C. to 1864).
      Birth 1799
      See all publications by this author
    • BACK COVER
      The Greek War of Independence gathered the European youth who languished in the torpid atmosphere of the Restoration in their own countries. George Finlay, sent to Göttingen to improve his knowledge of Roman law, conversed much with everybody he met who had visited Greece, read all the works of modern travellers, and became a good acquaintance of the only Greek who was then studying at Göttingen. He did not resist this pervasive call which mobilized the idealism of his generation, and he embarked for Greece in 1823. By participating in the War he became friend with Byron and with the renowned Captain Hasting, commander of the first steam frigate which fought effectively against the Turkish fleet, and accumulated a vast first-hand knowledge of the events of the revolution. After the birth of independent Greece, Finlay did not return to his homeland, but attempted to set up an innovative farm, losing all his money in the enterprise. Then he began studying the history of medieval and modern Greece, and wrote, among other essays, this History of the Greek Revolution, in which the mass of first-hand testimonies and documentary data in his possession was reworked in a masterpiece of historiography attentive to the facts and their context. The essay begins with a description of the Greek society at the dawn of the Independence War and extends up to the Constitutional Revolution of 1843. Each chapter proceeds first by qualifying the more general context, and then going into detail of the events: in this way today’s readers who have not specialist interest in minute details and the chronicles of war can read this book as a collection of monographs, of extreme interest for the image full of life that they return, of a society on the one hand pervaded by a powerful desire to shape its own political system, on the other hindered to realize its potential from inexperience and inability to organize itself.
    • TABLE OF CONTENTS
      Foreword and Author’s Biography
      Note to the 2020 electronic edition
      Original Title Page
      BOOK FIRST. EVENTS PRECEDING THE REVOLUTION.
      CHAPTER I. THE CONDITION OF THE MODERN GREEKS.
      CHAPTER II. THE ALBANIANS.
      CHAPTER III. SULTAN MAHMUD AND ALI PASHA OF JOANNINA.
      BOOK SECOND. THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE REVOLUTION.
      CHAPTER I. THE CAUSES OF THE GREEK REVOLUTION.
      CHAPTER II. THE OPERATIONS OF THE GREEK HETAIRISTS BEYOND THE DANUBE.
      CHAPTER III. THE OUTBREAK OF THE REVOLUTION IN GREECE.
      CHAPTER IV. THE POLICY AND CONDUCT OF SULTAN MAHMUD II.
      BOOK THIRD. THE SUCCESSES OF THE GREEKS.
      CHAPTER I. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF GREECE AS AN INDEPENDENT STATE.
      CHAPTER II. THE PRESIDENCY OF MAVROCORDATOS.
      CHAPTER III. FALL OF ATHENS – DEFEAT OF DRAMALI – FALL OF NAUPLIA.
      CHAPTER IV. THE CONDITION OF GREECE AS AN INDEPENDENT STATE.
      BOOK FOURTH. THE SUCCESSES OF THE TURKS.
      CHAPTER I. NAVAL SUCCESSES – IBRAHIM IN THE MOREA.
      CHAPTER II. THE SIEGE OF MESOLONGHI.
      CHAPTER III. THE SIEGE OF ATHENS.
      BOOK FIFTH. FOUNDATION OF THE GREEK KINGDOM.
      CHAPTER I. FOREIGN INTERVENTION – BATTLE OF NAVARIN.
      CHAPTER II. PRESIDENCY OF COUNT CAPODISTRIAS. JANUARY 1828 TO OCTOBER 1831.
      CHAPTER III. ANARCHY. 9TH OCTOBER 1831 TO 1ST FEBRUARY 1833.
      CHAPTER IV. BAVARIAN DESPOTISM AND CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION. FEBRUARY 1833 TO SEPTEMBER 1843.
      APPENDIX.
      I. Memorandum by Frank Abney Hastings, Esq., on the use of Steamers armed with heavy guns against the Turkish Fleet. Communicated to Lord Byron in 1823, and laid before the Greek Government, with some modification, in 1824.
      II. Memorandum by Sir Charles Napier, G.C.B., on Military Operations in the Morea against Ibrahim Pasha in 1826.
      INDEX
      The Hellenic Kingdom and the Greek Nation (1836)
      Original Title Page
      American Editor’s Introduction to the 1837 Edition.
      Preface
      Introduction
      General Observations.
      On the State of the Greek Population Prior to the Establishment of the Hellenic Kingdom.
      View of the Proceedings of the Different Administrations in Greece Since 1832.
      View of the Actual State of the Country, and the Means to Be Adopted for its Improvement.
      Detailed Table of Contents
      BOOK FIRST. EVENTS PRECEDING THE REVOLUTION.
      CHAPTER I. THE CONDITION OF THE MODERN GREEKS.
      Numbers of the Greek and Turkish races in Europe
      Pashaliks into which the country inhabited by the Greeks was divided
      Effect of the treaty of Kainardgi on the condition of the Greeks
      Distinction between Greek orthodoxy and Greek nationality
      Social divisions of the Greek race
      Greeks in Moldavia and Vallachia
      Four general divisions of the Greek nation
      Clergy
      Primates
      Urban population
      Rural populations
      Municipal institutions
      State of education
      General Condition of the Greeks
      Land-tax or tenths
      Haratch or capitation-tax
      Romeliots
      Armatoli
      Privileges of the province of Agrapha
      Klephts
      Moreots
      Moreot klefhts
      Maniats
      Islanders
      CHAPTER II. THE ALBANIANS.
      Extent of country occupied by the Albanian race in Greece
      Albanian Mussulmans of Lalla and Bardunia
      Christian Albanians of the Dervenokhoria, Hydra, and Spetzas
      Character and civil institutions of the Hydriots
      The Albanians form a distinct branch of the Indo-Germanic race
      Gueghs and Tosks
      Character, manners, and social condition of the Albanians
      Administrative divisions
      Military influence gained by the Albanians during the eighteenth century
      In Greece after the year
      Policy of Ali Pasha of Joannina
      Suliots, the most remarkable tribe of orthodox Albanians
      Their rise and social condition
      Repeatedly attacked by Ali Pasha
      Last war
      The priest Samuel
      Treachery of Suliots and capitulation of Suli
      Fate of Suliots
      CHAPTER III. SULTAN MAHMUD AND ALI PASHA OF JOANNINA.
      Character of Sultan Mahmud
      State of the Othoman Empire
      Ali Pasha of Joannina
      Ali’s cruelty
      Anecdote of Euphrosyne
      Anecdotes of the Bishop of Grevena, and of Ignatius, metropolitan of Arta
      Destruction of Khormovo and of Gardhiki
      Sultan Mahmud alarmed at Ali’s power
      Ali’s attempt to assassinate Ismael Pasho Bey
      Ali declared a rebel
      Plans and forces of Ali
      Sultan’s means of attack
      Ali convokes a divan
      Both belligerents appeal to the Greeks
      Operations against Ali
      He is deserted by his sons
      Recall of the Suliots to Albania
      They join Ali
      Khurshid Pasha of the Morea named Seraskier
      Condition of the Suliots on their return
      Their military system
      Operations in
      Conduct of Khurshid before Joannina
      Compared with that of Philip V. of Macedon
      Suliots join the cause of the Greeks
      Mission of Tahir Abbas to the Greeks
      Death of Ali
      BOOK SECOND. THE COMMENCEMENT OF THE REVOLUTION.
      CHAPTER I. THE CAUSES OF THE GREEK REVOLUTION.
      The causes produced by the improvement of society
      Secret societies
      Philiké Hetairia
      Difficult position in which the Turks were placed
      Plots of the Hetairists betrayed
      Progress of education and moral improvement among the Greeks
      Turks nationally more depressed by the Othoman government than Greeks
      Influence of Roman law on modern Greek civilisation
      Improvement which took place after the peace of Kainardgi, in
      Greeks living in Turkey under foreign protection
      CHAPTER II. THE OPERATIONS OF THE GREEK HETAIRISTS BEYOND THE DANUBE.
      Character of Prince Alexander Hypsilantes
      Relations between Russia and Turkey
      State of the government and of the Rouman population in Moldavia and Vallachia
      Invasion of Moldavia
      Massacre of the Turks at Galatz and Yassi
      Fury of the Turks
      Revolution in Vallachia
      Georgaki, Savas, and Vladimiresko
      Hypsilantes at Bucharest
      Sacred battalion
      Proceedings in Vallachia
      Anathema of the patriarch
      Russia disclaims the Revolution
      Deceitful conduct of Hypsilantes
      The murder of Vladimiresko
      Battle of Dragashan
      Flight of Hypsilantes
      Affair of Skuleni
      Death of Georgaki
      Termination of the Revolution in the principalities
      CHAPTER III. THE OUTBREAK OF THE REVOLUTION IN GREECE.
      Extermination of the Turks in Greece
      Preparations of the Othoman government
      Operations of the Hetairists in the Morea
      The Archimandrite Gregorios Dikaios
      Attempt of primates to defer the insurrection
      Hostages summoned to Tripolitza by the Turks
      Warning letter forged by the Greeks
      First insurrectional movements in the Peloponnesus
      Turks at Kalavryta surrender, and are murdered
      Character of Petrobey
      Taking of Kalamata, and first Te Deum for victory
      Outbreak at Patras
      Extermination of the Mohammedan population in Greece
      Character and biography of Theodore Kolokotrones
      His prayer at Chrysovitzi
      Revolution at Salona, and character of Panourias
      Salona and Livadea taken
      Character of Diakos
      Murder of Mohammedans
      Acropolis of Athens besieged
      Revolution at Mesolonghi
      Vrachori taken, and Turks and Jews massacred
      Revolution in the islands
      Oligarchy and system of trade at Hydra
      Spetzas first proclaims the revolution
      Psara follows
      Insurrection at Hydra headed by Economos
      First cruise of the Greek fleet
      Murder of the Sheik-el-Islam
      Fall of Economos
      Othoman fleet quits the Dardanelles
      Greeks prepare fire-ships
      Turkish line-of-battle ships burned off Mytilene
      Kydonies sacked by the Turks
      Squadron under Miaoulis on western coast of Greece
      CHAPTER IV. THE POLICY AND CONDUCT OF SULTAN MAHMUD II.
      Policy or Sultan Mahmud
      Suppressive measures and first executions of Greeks
      Execution of the Patriarch Gregorios
      His character
      Massacres of Greeks
      Sultan restores order
      Cruelties of Turks and Greeks
      Rupture with Russia
      Difficulties of Sultan Mahmud in
      Measures adopted to suppress the Greek Revolution
      Order re-established in Agrapha, among the Vallachian population on Mount Pindus
      Rapacity of the Greek troops
      Insurrection on Mount Pelion suppressed
      Revolution in the free villages of the Chalcidicé
      Among the monks of Mount Athos
      Suppressed by Aboul-Abad Pasha of Saloniki
      Insurrection in the Macedonian mountains
      Sack of Niausta
      Success of Sultan Mahmud in maintaining order
      BOOK THIRD. THE SUCCESSES OF THE GREEKS.
      CHAPTER I. THE ESTABLISHMENT OF GREECE AS AN INDEPENDENT STATE.
      Victory of the Greeks at Valtetzi
      Capitulation of Monemvasia
      Capitulation of Navarin and massacre of the Turks
      Fraudulent division of the booty
      Taking of Tripolitza and capitulation of the Albanians
      The heroine Bobolina
      Sack of Tripolitza
      Anarchy it produced
      Cruise of the Othoman fleet in
      Violation of neutrality at Zante
      Return of the Othoman fleet to Constantinople
      Kolokotrones prevented from besieging Patras
      Surrender of Corinth
      Resources of the Greeks for carrying on the war
      Administrative organisation which arose with the Revolution
      Advantages and disadvantages of the communal system existing in Greece
      A Peloponnesian Senate formed
      Arrival, character, and conduct of Prince Demetrius Hypsilantes
      He claims absolute power
      Arrival of Alexander Mavrocordatos
      Organisation of Continental Greece
      The Greeks demand a central government
      Hypsilantes convokes a National Assembly
      The antagonistic positions of the National Assembly and the Peloponnesian Senate
      Prince Demetrius Hypsilantes deserts the popular cause
      The Peloponnesians make their Senate independent
      The constitution of Epidaurus
      CHAPTER II. THE PRESIDENCY OF MAVROCORDATOS.
      The character and political position of Alexander Mavrocordatos
      Affairs of Euboea, and death of Elias Mavromichales
      Conduct of Odysseus at Karystos
      Affairs of Chios, and invasion of the island by the Samiots
      Prompt measures of the sultan
      Massacres of the Chiots
      Greek fleet puts to sea
      Constantine Kanaris burns the flag-ship of the capitan-pasha
      Operations of the Greek fleet
      Devastation of Chios
      The President Mavrocordatos assumes the chief command in Western Greece
      Treachery of Gogos
      Defeat at Petta
      Effects of this defeat
      Death of Kyriakules Mavromichales
      Capitulation of Suliots
      Affairs of Acarnania
      Siege of Mesolonghi
      Defeat of the Turks
      CHAPTER III. FALL OF ATHENS – DEFEAT OF DRAMALI – FALL OF NAUPLIA.
      Preparations of Sultan Mahmud for conquering Greece
      Defensive measures of the Greeks
      Their quarrels and intrigues
      Odysseus murders Noutzas and Palaskas
      Capitulation of Athens
      Massacre of men, women, and children
      Expedition of Dramali
      Corinth retaken – Turkish plans of campaign
      First capitulation of Nauplia
      Flight of Greeks from Argos
      They defend the Larissa
      Patriotic conduct of Prince Demetrius Hypsilantes
      Numbers of the Greek forces in the field
      Defeat of Dramali
      Greeks obtain possession of the Burdjee
      Operations of the hostile fleets
      Second capitulation of Nauplia
      Turkish population of Nauplia saved by captain Hamilton of H.M.S. Cambrian
      Kanaris again destroys a Turkish line-of-battle ship
      State of the naval warfare between the Greeks and Turks
      State of affairs at Athens
      Odysseus gains possession of Athens
      Concludes an armistice with the Turks
      ERRATUM.
      CHAPTER IV. THE CONDITION OF GREECE AS AN INDEPENDENT STATE.
      Firmness of Sultan Mahmud
      He adopts a conciliatory policy
      A great fire at Constantinople destroys his armaments in
      Plan of campaign for
      Negligence of the Greek government
      Olympian armatoli plunder Skiathos and Skopelos
      Operations of the Turks
      Death of Marco Botzares
      Advance of the Turkish army
      Siege of Anatolikon
      Operations of the Greek and Turkish fleets
      Escape of eight Psarian sailors
      Violation of Ionian neutrality
      Misconduct of the sailors on board the Greek fleet
      Surrender of the Turks in the Acrocorinth
      Lord Byron in Greece
      First Greek loan contracted in England
      First civil war
      Mohammed Ali engages to assist the sultan
      The political state of Greece in
      Position of Kolettes
      Of Mavrocordatos
      Second civil war
      Characters of Zaimes, Londos, and Sessini
      Evil consequences of the two civil wars
      Wasteful expenditure of the two loans
      Anecdotes
      Military expenditure
      Naval expenditure
      BOOK FOURTH. THE SUCCESSES OF THE TURKS.
      CHAPTER I. NAVAL SUCCESSES – IBRAHIM IN THE MOREA.
      Destruction of Kasos
      Destruction of Psara
      Expedition of Mohammed Ali
      The Baïram at Makry
      Naval battles off Budrun
      Failure of the Turks at Samos
      Ibrahim driven back from Crete
      Ibrahim lands in Greece
      Greeks unprepared for defence
      Defeat of the Greek army
      Egyptians take Sphakteria
      Escape of the brig Mars
      Capitulation of Navarin
      Success of Miaoulis at Modon
      Kolokotrones General in the Peloponnesus
      Defeat of the Greeks and death of the archimandrite Dikaios at Maniaki
      Defeat of Kolokotrones at Makryplagi
      Ibrahim repulsed at Lerna
      Defeat of Kolokotrones at Trikorpha
      Ibrahim ravages the Morea
      Receives orders to aid in the siege of Mesolonghi
      CHAPTER II. THE SIEGE OF MESOLONGHI.
      Operations of Reshid Pasha
      State of Mesolonghi – Number of its garrison and of its besiegers
      Arrival of the Othoman fleet
      Arrival of the Greek fleet
      Difficult position of Reshid
      He constructs a mound
      Treason of Odysseus
      Military operations in continental Greece
      Reshid withdraws to a fortified camp
      Operations of the Turkish and Greek fleets
      Ibrahim arrives before Mesolonghi
      Lethargy of the Greeks and of their government
      The Turks take Vasiladi and Anatolikon
      Offers of capitulation rejected
      Turkish attack on Klissova repulsed
      Defeat of the Greek fleet under Miaoulis
      Final sortie
      Fall of Mesolonghi
      CHAPTER III. THE SIEGE OF ATHENS.
      Ibrahim’s operations in the Morea during
      Reshid’s operations in continental Greece
      Commencement of the siege of Athens, and battle of Khaïdari
      Death of Goura
      Grigiottes throws himself into the Acropolis
      Karaïskaki’s operations to raise the siege
      Fabvier throws himself into the Acropolis
      State of Greece during the winter 1826-
      Expeditions for the relief of Athens under Gordon, Burbaki, and Heideck
      General Sir Richard Church
      Lord Cochrane (Earl of Dundonald)
      Election of Count Capodistrias to be president of Greece
      Naval expedition under Captain Hastings
      Greek traders supply Reshid’s army with provisions
      Operations of Church and Cochrane before Athens
      Massacre of the garrison of the monastery of St Spiridion
      Karaïskaki’s death
      Defeat of Sir Richard Church at the Phalerum
      Evacuation of the Acropolis
      Conduct of Philhellenes in Greece, England, and America
      Lord Cochrane’s naval review at Poros
      Sufferings of the Greeks
      Assistance sent from the United States
      BOOK FIFTH. FOUNDATION OF THE GREEK KINGDOM.
      CHAPTER I. FOREIGN INTERVENTION – BATTLE OF NAVARIN.
      Conduct of Russia
      Conduct of Great Britain
      Congress of Verona
      Russian memoir on the pacification of Greece in
      Effect of this memoir
      Turkey complains of the conduct of the British government
      Greece places herself under the protection of England
      Protocol of the 4th April 1826 for the pacification of Greece
      Destruction of the janissaries
      Treaty of the 6th July 1827 for the pacification of Greece
      State of Greece in
      Victory of Hastings at Salona
      Battle of Navarin
      Greek slaves carried off to Alexandria
      Greek troops cross into Acarnania
      Hastings takes Vasiladi
      Death of Hastings
      Russia declares war with Turkey
      French troops compel Ibrahim to evacuate the Morea
      CHAPTER II. PRESIDENCY OF COUNT CAPODISTRIAS. JANUARY 1828 TO OCTOBER 1831.
      Character of Count John Capodistrias
      First administrative measures as president
      His opinions and policy
      Organisation of the army
      Fabvier’s resignation
      Operations in Eastern and Western Greece
      Termination of hostilities
      Civil administration
      Viaro Capodistrias
      Financial administration
      Judicial administration
      Public instruction
      National Assembly of Argos
      Protocols of the three protecting powers
      Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg sovereign of Greece
      His resignation
      Capodistrias becomes a tyrant
      Hostility to the liberty of the press
      Tyranny of Capodistrias
      Affair of Poros
      Destruction of the Greek fleet
      Sack of Poros
      Family of Mavromichales
      Assassination of Capodistrias
      CHAPTER III. ANARCHY. 9TH OCTOBER 1831 TO 1ST FEBRUARY 1833.
      Governing commission refuses to grant a general amnesty
      Second national assembly at Argos
      Romeliot military opposition
      Agostino president of Greece
      Romeliots expelled from Argos
      Sir Stratford Canning’s memorandum
      Romeliots invade the Morea
      Conduct of the residents
      Agostino ejected from the presidency
      Governing commission
      State of Greece
      Anarchy
      French troops garrison Nauplia
      Djavellas occupies Patras
      Kolokotrones rallies the Capodistrians
      National assembly at Pronia
      Constitutional liberty in abeyance
      Intrigues of the senate
      Municipal institutions arrest the progress of anarchy in the Morea
      Condition of Messenia
      Position of Kolokotrones and Kolettes
      True nature of the municipal institutions in Greece not generally understood
      Attack on the French troops at Argos
      Establishment of the Bavarian dynasty
      CHAPTER IV. BAVARIAN DESPOTISM AND CONSTITUTIONAL REVOLUTION. FEBRUARY 1833 TO SEPTEMBER 1843.
      Landing or King Otho
      The regency, its members and duties
      Royal proclamation – Administrative measures
      Military organisation
      Civil administration – Municipal institutions
      Financial administration
      Monetary system
      Judicial organisation
      The Greek Church, reforms introduced by the regency
      Synodal tomos
      Monasteries
      Public instruction
      Restrictions on the press
      Roads
      Order of the redeemer
      Quarrels in the regency
      Kolokotrones’s plot
      Armansperg intrigue
      Armansperg’s administration
      Bavarian influence
      Disputes with England
      Alarming increase of brigandage
      Insurrections in Maina and Messenia
      Brigandage in
      General Gordon’s expedition
      Insurrection in Acarnania
      Opinions of Lord Lyons and General Gordon on the state of Greece
      Brigandage continues
      King Otho’s personal government
      Attacks on Kino Otho in the English newspapers
      Causes of the Revolution of
      Revolution
      Observations on the constitution
      Conclusion
      APPENDIX.
      I. Memorandum by Frank Abney Hastings, Esq., on the use of Steamers armed with heavy guns against the Turkish Fleet. Communicated to Lord Byron in 1823, and laid before the Greek Government, with some modification, in 1824.
      II. Memorandum by Sir Charles Napier, G.C.B., on Military Operations in the Morea against Ibrahim Pasha in 1826.
      INDEX
      The Hellenic Kingdom and the Greek Nation (1836)
      Original Title Page
      American Editor’s Introduction to the 1837 Edition.
      Preface
      Introduction
      General Observations.
      On the State of the Greek Population Prior to the Establishment of the Hellenic Kingdom.
      View of the Proceedings of the Different Administrations in Greece Since 1832.
      View of the Actual State of the Country, and the Means to Be Adopted for its Improvement.
      Detailed Table of Contents
      Back Cover
      George Finlay

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