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    • Relativity from Lorentz to Einstein. A Guide for Beginners, Perplexed and Experimental Scientists
      Alberto Palazzi
      Everyone knows that Einstein's special relativity is a theory of time and space measurements, no longer considered absolute. But many who have tried to study it have not been able to understand it: yet it is enough to know what speed and square root are. This book, written for beginners and for perplexed who have tried the study of relativity without success, leads its readers to understand this founding idea of twentieth century culture and to judge it with their own intelligence.

      Pages 470
      Format: pdf + epub + mobi
      ISBN 9788897527411 Anno 2018
    • Ebook Price € 6

    • Alberto Palazzi
      A scholar of history and philosophy and designer of computer algorithms for problems of higher complexity, the author of this book brings together the skills necessary to analyze the scientific significance of relativity and to reconstruct the historical and anthropological context in which it was born and became an institution of our time.
      Birth 1959
      See all publications by this author
      Everyone knows that Einstein's special relativity contains a theory of time measurements, which are no longer conceived as absolute, but are related to the state of motion of the clock and to the point of view of the observer, and the same happens to space measurements. Everyone also knows that the theory contains the deduction that a small material mass can be converted into a huge amount of energy according to a precise quantitative relationship.
      But many who have tried to study the theory have failed to understand it; yet, to fully understand the part of Einstein's theory about time and space measurements, readers just need to know what speed and square root are, and to obtain a simplified but clear idea of the part regarding the concepts of mass and energy they need just to remember elementary high-school physics. Apparently something is missing in all the many books that describe relativity in a simple or higher level.
      This book is written in a different way from any other. A rigorous but clear exposition will show all readers, provided they know what speed and square root are, that they can understand fully and perfectly the space-time theory and can judge it with their own intelligence. In addition, readers will have a clear idea of the equivalence between mass and energy and its logical relationship with space-time theory.
      This book was written for beginners and for perplexed people who have unsuccessfully attempted to study special relativity: both will understand the exact meaning of the famous and difficult essay in which Einstein expounded the theory in 1905, which is examined word by word in this book. And all readers will have a clearer idea of the relevance of relativity for the twentieth (and twenty-first) century culture.
      1.         Basics
      1.1       Special relativity and general relativity
      1.2       Space measures: the sample ruler problem
      1.3       Time measures: the sample clock problem
      1.4       Simultaneity and succession of phenomena in time
      1.5       Measurements of the speed of light
      2.         Ether, electromagnetic theory and Lorentz's hypothesis
      2.1       Electromagnetic Theory and law of inertia
      2.2       The problem of speed as physical constant
      2.3       Motion with respect to the ether and the Michelson and Morley experiment
      2.4       Propagation of electromagnetic waves
      2.5       Lorentz's "physical" relativity theory
      2.6       Lorentz contraction factor
      2.7       Galilean and Lorentz transformations
      2.8       Formula for speed composition
      2.9       Length contraction and time dilatation: a recurring misunderstanding
      2.10           Relativity of simultaneity and time measurements
      2.11           Derivation of Lorentz transformations
      3.         Einstein's solution
      3.1       Two Einstein's postulates
      3.2       Synchronization of clocks in distant systems
      3.3       Synchronization of distant clocks with other means than light
      3.4       Lorentz's transformations come into play
      3.5       A question to the reader, and instructions
      3.6       Synchronization of distant clocks by means of light
      3.7       ED1905 Chapter 1, "Definition of simultaneity"
      3.8       ED1905 Chapter 2, "On the relativity of lengths and times"
      3.9       ED1905 Chapters 3, 4 and 5, Lorentz transformations and consequences
      3.10           Review of previous sections
      3.11           ED1905 Chapter 6, application to electrodynamics and invariance of Maxwell equations
      3.12           ED1905 Chapter 6, a detail about electrodynamics
      3.13           Assumptions and consequences of applying Lorentz's transformations to electrodynamics
      3.14           Conventional interpretation of dilatation
      3.15           Apparent interpretation of dilatation
      3.16           Realist interpretation of dilatation
      3.17           Balance of the three interpretations
      4.         The relativistic concept of mass: E=mc²
      4.1       Concept of photon, or electromagnetic quantum
      4.2       Basics of elementary physics needed to understand E=mc²
      4.3       Convertibility between mass and energy
      4.4       E=mc²: non-relativistic derivation by Rohrlich (didactic)
      4.5       E=mc² and increase of mass with speed
      4.6       Mass, energy and speed: non-relativistic derivation by Lewis (1908)
      4.7       Mass, energy and speed: problems revealed by non-relativistic conception
      5.         Time and space dilatation and law of inertia
      5.1       Rewording the problem
      5.2       Nature of contradiction
      5.3       The conflict between apparent and realist interpretation of relativity
      5.4       Interpretation of special relativity shortly after 1905
      5.5       Transition from apparent to realist interpretation (1911)
      5.6       Realist interpretation of dilatation through general relativity (1918)
      6.         Discussions of relativity paradoxes
      6.1       After Einstein
      6.2       The µ meson
      6.3       Minkowski geometry, space-time and world lines
      6.4       Minkowski geometry and clocks problem
      6.5       Fizeau's experiment with water
      6.6       The Hafele-Keating experiment and GPS system
      6.7       Problem of the relativistic deduction of E=mc²
      7.         Success of special relativity and opinions
      7.1       Success of the theory
      7.2       (Perhaps) naive considerations about the unity of time
      7.3       Connections with twentieth century culture
      7.4       Rational criticism of relativity
      7.5       Counterintuitive geometry of space-time
      7.6       Experience of the author of this book
      Back cover
      Alberto Palazzi

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